Turkey’s official Anatolia news agency said the girl – who has yet to be identified – was found on a beach in the Aegean town of Cesme.
Authorities said she appears to be the only casualty after a boat sank carrying 15 Syrians on its journey to the Greek island of Chios.
The report said the Turkish coast guard rescued the other 14 passengers, including eight children.
Images of drowned toddler galvanise public opinion
A photo of Aylan Kurdi’s body in the surf off a popular Turkish holiday resort prompted sympathy and outrage at the perceived inaction of developed nations in helping thousands of refugees using dangerous sea-routes to reach Europe, many of whom have fled Syria’s four-year civil war.
News that Hungary has closed the European Union’s external border with Serbia had not deterred these families from risking the hazardous crossing from Turkey.
“We don’t have the choice, we will go there [Hungary] anyway. We are looking for security, for a safe place, because in Syria, there is Islamic State, the Nusra Front, and now a hundred different factions. Syria is destroyed. We want our children to live. This is the only thing we are asking for,” said Mustapha.
Some of the refugees and migrants didn’t know when they arrived that some European countries had put in place measures to control the flow but expressed their determination to go anyway.
“I don’t know. We will go and see on the ground. We will manage anyway. We’ll cross through Hungary to get into Germany,” said Mohammed, who had also fled Kobani.
Thousands of migrants are now seeking alternative routes to richer countries in Europe, with thousands entering Croatia from Serbia since Wednesday morning, after Hungary sealed its southern frontier with Serbia.
Migrant crossings of Mediterranean to Europe rise to 473,887
A record 473,887 refugees and migrants have crossed the Mediterranean to Europe so far in 2015, the International Organization for Migration said on Friday, including at least 182,000 Syrians – almost 40 percent of the total.
The total represents an increase of almost 9,000 from the total the Geneva-based agency gave on Tuesday. But the rate of increase has slowed. On Tuesday, the IOM said the number of crossings had jumped by more than 32,000 since the previous Friday.